Living systems are highly integrated, with a multitude of levels of organization, from molecular and intra-cellular scales to ecosystems. Complex organisms are themselves consortia of macro- and micro-organisms, which work together with their host to build the individual. Yet, each of these organisms can function and evolve in the short term according to its own logic, possibly in conflict with other higher or lower levels, or with other time scales. The once common idea among evolutionists that natural selection results in organisms perfectly adapted to their environment is now severely undermined. Not only because, as the Red Queen explains to Alice, one has to run relentlessly to keep its place in a changing environment, or because past evolutionary history and chance constrain the possibilities of present adaptation, but also because different levels of selection have interests that are generally difficult to reconcile.
Multi-scale coevolution resets classical questions in evolutionary biology
One example, of particular interest is the question of the source of heritable variations. The phenotype of organisms in a population is influenced not only by variations in their nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, the dynamics of which is the object of population genetics, but also more and more patently by the consortium of microbes and genetic elements that constitute its microbiome and virome. The hologenome designates this complex assembly of genetic materials, which obey different rules of transmission and different evolutionary strategies. The ability of symbionts to manipulate host phenotypes or to interfere with each other influences the evolutionary dynamics of all players in ways that are yet poorly understood. In addition, new questions arise, such as the importance of co-adaptation in these systems and their consequences in maintaining cohesive biological systems.
- Symbiosis: a response to and a source of divergent selection
Using a variety of approaches combining experimental evolution, genomic, functional, phenotypic and behavioral data, we aim to test whether symbiosis facilitates diversification and to characterize the underlying microevolutionary processes.
- Ecological networks of horizontal gene transfer
We develop original methods to detect gene transfer and we investigate the factors that influence the routes of gene transfers among microbes but also among insects.
- The interplay between symbiosis, infection and immunity and its evolutionary consequences
We try to understand the intimate interaction of hosts with pathogens, symbionts and transposable elements and how it affects the extended phenotype of the host.
- Transgenerational inheritance and environment changes
We try to decipher the molecular mechanisms that underlie rapid adaptation to environment and to test for transgenerational inheritance of fitness traits.
- Intragenomic conflicts and demography
We are developing models to test whether changes in the demography of the host affect the dynamics of transposable elements.
- The determinism of phenotypic convergence
We study the genomic basis of convergent phenotypic evolution in particular in the case of animals and plants adaptation to increasing temperature and decreasing water.
- Reconciling the tree of life
We develop phylogenetic methods for “reconciling” gene/species or host/symbiont histories and use these methods to explore the bulk of extinct or undescribed species and the history of association of symbiotic microbes with their hosts.
The methods we use to tackle the questions raised by multi-scale co-evolution extend from theory, modelling and simulation to big data analysis, lab (notably on insects), and to a lesser extent, field activities.
Implication of research, responsibility of researchers and citizen sciences
From our research (some of which have immediate consequences in health, agriculture and ecology) and our concerns about the responsibility of scientists in society, we are committed to promote an “implicative” research. The implicative position means that we try to work on the link between science and society, not only through a one-way communication, applying or explaining our science, but also favoring early discussions on research projects, that may influence our research directions.
Display of 1 to 30 publications on 635 in total
Ghost lineages highly influence the interpretation of introgression tests
Cytotype Affects the Capability of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci MED Species To Feed and Oviposit on an Unfavorable Host Plant
Biopesticide Evaluation from Lab to Greenhouse Scale of Essential Oils Used against Macrosiphum euphorbiae
Agriculture . 11 ( 9 ) : 867
CPCN - BILAN DE MANDATURE 2016 – 2021
Infections by Transovarially Transmitted DMelSV in Drosophila Have No Impact on Ovarian Transposable Element Transcripts but Increase Their Amounts in the Soma
Genome Biology and Evolution . 13 ( 9 )
The Worldwide Invasion of Drosophila suzukii Is Accompanied by a Large Increase of Transposable Element Load and a Small Number of Putatively Adaptive Insertions
Molecular Biology and Evolution . 38 ( 10 ) : 4252-4267
Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Responses to Stress Differ According to Population Geography in an Invasive Species
Genome Biology and Evolution . 13 ( 9 ) : evab208
CPCN - BILAN DE MANDATURE 2016 – 2021
Predicted effects of summer holidays and seasonality on the SARS-Cov-2 epidemic in France
medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences .
Ghost lineages deceive introgression tests and call for a new null hypothesis
The curious case of a hapless mathematical contribution to biology
The molecular mechanisms that determine different degrees of polyphagy in the Bemisia tabaci species complex
Evolutionary Applications . 14 ( 3 ) : 807-820
A Codon Model for Associating Phenotypic Traits with Altered Selective Patterns of Sequence Evolution
Systematic Biology . 70 ( 3 ) : 608-622
DROP: Molecular voucher database for identification of Drosophila parasitoids
Molecular Ecology Resources .
Wolbachia load variation in Drosophila is more likely caused by drift than by host genetic factors
Peer Community in Evolutionary Biology .
Chromosomal scale assembly of parasitic wasp genome reveals symbiotic virus colonization
Communications Biology . 4 ( 1 )
Seaview Version 5: A Multiplatform Software for Multiple Sequence Alignment, Molecular Phylogenetic Analyses, and Tree Reconciliation
Multiple Sequence Alignment . 2231 : 241-260
The worldwide invasion of Drosophila suzukii is accompanied by a large increase of transposable element load and a small number of putatively adaptive insertions
L'informatique les pieds sur Terre
La fin d'un tout petit monde
Drosophila suzukii oxidative stress response involves Jheh gene cluster but not transposable elements
Portiera Gets Wild: Genome Instability Provides Insights into the Evolution of Both Whiteflies and Their Endosymbionts
Genome Biology and Evolution . 12 ( 11 ) : 2107-2124
Inside out: microbiota dynamics during host-plant adaptation of whiteflies
ISME Journal . 14 ( 3 ) : 847-856
Molecular Evolution of the Glutathione S-Transferase Family in the Bemisia tabaci Species Complex
Genome Biology and Evolution . 12 ( 2 ) : 3857-3872
Reconciling Gene trees with Species Trees
Phylogenetics in the Genomic Era . : 3.2:1--3.2:23